Monthly Archives: June 2010

Egypt finds evidence of unfinished secret tomb inside grave.

released by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities on Wednesday, June 30, 2010, Antiquities chief Zahi Hawass

released by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities on Wednesday, June 30, 2010, Antiquities chief Zahi Hawass

Egypt’s antiquities department has announced the excavation of an unfinished tunnel, possibly meant to be a secret tomb, inside a 3,300-year-old pharaoh’s grave.

The 570-foot long tunnel (174 meters) stretches away from the main tomb of New Kingdom Pharaoh Seti I (1314-1304 B.C.) descending two staircases before abruptly ending.

Egyptian chief archaeologist Zahi Hawass said it has taken three years to excavate the 570-foot (174 meter) long tunnel in Pharaoh Seti Is ornate tomb in southern Egypt‘s Valley of the Kings. The pharaoah died before the project was finished.

First discovered in 1960, the tunnel has only now been completely cleared and archaeologists discovered ancient figurines, shards of pottery and instructions left by the architect for the workmen.

“Move the door jamb up and make the passage wider,” read an inscription on a decorative false door in the passage. It was written in hieratic, a simplified cursive version of hieroglyphics.

Elsewhere in the tunnel there were preliminary sketches of planned decorations, said Hawass.

Pharoah Seti I (1314-1304 B.C.) was one of the founders of the New Kingdom’s 19th Dynasty known for its military exploits and considered the peak of ancient Egyptian power. His tomb is famous for its colorful wall paintings.

Seti‘s son Ramses II built grandiose temples and statues of himself all over Egypt.

Hawass speculated that the tunnel and secret tomb were not finished because of the pharoah’s death, but may have inspired a similar strucuture in Ramses II‘s tomb.

Posted by : Yasmine Aladdin

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Ancient Egypt, Cultural Tourism, Dahabiyas in Egypt Nile, Discoveries in Egypt, Latest Discoveries in Egypt, Sightseeing Tours | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Ancient Egyptian Sport; Hockey, weightlifting, long jump, swimming, rowing, shooting, fishing and athletics, as well as various kinds of ball games !

Many of today’s sports were practiced by the Ancient Egyptians, who set the rules and regulations for them. Inscriptions on monuments indicate that they practiced wrestling, weightlifting, long jump, swimming, rowing, shooting, fishing and athletics, as well as various kinds of ball games.

HockeyHockey

Ancient Egyptians played a game that is similar to our present-day hockey. Drawings on tombs at Beni Hassan in Menia Governorate show players holding bats made of long palm-tree branches, with a bent end similar to that of the hockey bat. The hockey ball was made of compressed papyrus fibers covered with two pieces of leather in the shape of a semicircle. The ball was dyed in two or more colors.


Handball

Drawings of this sport are found on the Saqqara tombs, five thousand years old. The ball was made of leather and stuffed with plant fibers or hay, or made of papyrus plants in order to be light and more durable. It was seldom used for more than one match.
The painting shows four girls playing handball. Each team throws the ball to the other at the same time. Players can either be on their feet or on top of their teammates’ backs while exchanging balls.

Gymnastics: Consecutive Vault
Gymnastics Consecutive Vault
This painting represents pharaonic gymnastics. The players performed consecutive vaults without touching the floor with their heads and making more than one complete turn in the air.
At the end of the exercise the players stand firmly upright, which is one of the basic rules of floor exercise applied in today’s Olympics.

FishingFishing
Fishing was one of the sports practiced by kings, princes and commoners. There are many drawings of scenes of fishing as a hobby on the Saqqara tombs of the Old Kingdom as much as there are on the New Kingdom monuments.
The Egyptian Museum in Cairo comprises numerous kinds of fishing rods and hooks of various shapes, which indicate the advance of such a sport in ancient Egypt.

High Jump
High Jump
Ancient Egyptians practiced field and track sports such as the high jump. Two players sat opposite each other with legs stretched, with one player’s feet on top of the toes of the other. If the third player managed to jump over that barrier, the two sitting players placed their palms on top of their feet to heighten the barrier which the third player had to jump across without touching.
This game is still practiced in the Egyptian countryside and is called “goose steps”.

Gymnastics (floor exercise)
Gymnastics
The ancient Egyptians invented many sports, some for entertainment, and others for keeping strong, physically fit, and slim.
The picture dates back to 2000 years BC. It shows a gymnastics drill in which the body is bent backwards until the hand s touch the ground, revealing bodily flexibility. It is one of the most commonly practiced exercises today.

Rhythmic Gymnastics
Rhythmic Gymnastics
The picture shows four players performing rhythmic gymnastics in different positions. The one on the left stands on one foot, stretching his two arms horizontally, and lifting one leg as high as possible to the front to help him revolve swiftly and lightly.
The two players in the middle are standing facing each other, bending their arms near their shoulders while twisting their waists towards the left and right.
The fourth player stands on his head upside down in perfect equilibrium, without touching the floor with his arms. All these positions are close to some practiced in today’s rhythmic gymnastics.

Archery Archery
Archery was a well-known sport in Ancient Egypt and was often recorded on plates in ancient temples. These plates show the kings’ and princes’ skill in accurate aiming at the target, and their strength in pulling the bow.
Archery competitions were common. In the 21st century BC King Amenhotep II boasted that he pierced the middle of a thick brass target with four arrows. He then set a prize for anyone who could do the same.
SwimmingSwimming
Swimming was the favorite sport of the ancient Egyptians, who made use of the River Nile to practice it. The Nile was not the only place for swimming contests. Noblemen’s palaces had swimming pools in which princes learnt the sport.
The calm waters of the Nile encouraged youths to hold swimming competitions in which they could show their skills.

Marathonrunning

Marathon races were of the utmost importance in ancient Egypt, particularly during celebrations marking the assumption of power of new kings. One of the rituals of these celebrations was to hold a marathon run by the king around the temples before spectators to reveal his physical strength and his ability to rule using his bodily as well as mental capabilities.
History records that the Pharaoh, together with those who were born on the same day of his birth, participated in hectic marathons. No one was allowed to have a meal before covering 180 stages of his race.
Reference: sis.gov.eg
Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin


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Ancient Egypt guide to afterlife at the British Museum this November.

(Reuters Life!) – Papyri from the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, a series of spells designed to help guide the dead through the afterlife, will be at the center of a new show at the British Museum this November.

The star item is likely to be the Greenfield Papyrus, which the London museum called the world’s longest Book of the Dead at 37 meters (yards). It has never been shown publicly in its entirety before.

“Journey through the afterlife: ancient Egypt Book of the Dead,” sponsored by BP, will run from November 4 to March 6, 2011 in the museum’s central Reading Room, used for a series of successful “blockbuster” exhibitions in recent years.

The “book,” which is not a single text but a compilation of spells, was used between around 1600 BC and 100 AD and explains much about ancient Egypt’s complex belief systems where death and the afterlife were a central focus.

“Though the name may be familiar today, the wealth of magical images and texts is actually much richer than is generally known,” the museum said.

“Beautifully colored illustrations graphically show the fields and rivers of the Netherworld, the gods and demons whom the deceased would meet, and the critical ‘weighing of the heart’ ritual.”

According to their beliefs, that judgment would determine whether the soul was admitted into the afterlife or condemned to destruction at the hands of the monstrous “Devourer.”

The museum will draw on what it called its “unparalleled” Book of the Dead papyri and also display works on loan from other major collections.

Also on show will be painted coffins, gilded masks, jewelry, tomb figurines and mummy trappings.

(Reporting by Mike Collett-White, editing by Paul Casciato)

Reference: canoe.ca/Travel/News/

Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

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Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt, by Zahi Hawass in collaboration with underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio.

Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt

Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt

Beautiful, mysterious, and tragic, Cleopatra remains one of the most mesmerizing women of all time—and here is her story, based on the latest archaeological research. Secrets unfold in the official companion book to the new exhibition cosponsored by National Geographic, opening in Philadelphia in May 2010 and touring the United States for several years. Written by the inimitable Zahi Hawass in collaboration with underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio, this richly illustrated book chronicles the life of Cleopatra and the centuries-long quest to learn more about the queen and her tumultuous era, the last pharaonic period of Egyptian history. For the crowds nationwide who will visit the blockbuster exhibit—as well as the huge readership for popular illustrated histories such as this—Cleopatra and the Lost Treasures of Egypt holds rare glimpses and stunning revelations from the life of a star-crossed queen.

Zahi Hawass is an Egyptian archaeologist known throughout the world for his contributions to the understanding and preservation of Egypt’s heritage. Among his most important discoveries are the tombs of the pyramid builders at Giza and the Valley of the Golden Mummies in the Bahariya OasisTime magazine named him one of the world’s 10 Most Influential People in 2006.
Franck Goddio is a French archaeologist recognized for his systematic approach to underwater exploration of ancient shipwrecks and remains of past civilizations. He discovered the ancient submerged Royal Quarters of Alexandria in 1996, the lost cities and monuments of Heracleion, and the suburb of Canopus in the Bay of Aboukir, which are featured in this book.

Reference: Zahi Hawass Blog.

Posted by : Yasmine  Aladdin.

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Ancient Egypt, Cultural Tourism, Discoveries in Egypt | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

3,500-year-old underground town discovered by Radar in Egypt. New Excavations at Tell el-Daba

View of geophysical survey from the Austrian Mission at Tell el-Daba (Photo courtesy of Dr. Irene Forstner-Muller)

View of geophysical survey from the Austrian Mission at Tell el-Daba (Photo courtesy of Dr. Irene Forstner-Muller)

Austrian archeologists have detected a 3,500-year-old Egyptian town buried under the earth in the northeastern region of the Nile Delta.

The city, discovered by an Austrian archeological mission in Tell El-Dab’a, northeastern Egypt, is likely to be Avaris, the capital of Hyksos occupiers who ruled Egypt from 1664 B.C. to 1569 B.C., Egyptian Cultural Minister Farouk Hosni said Sunday.

Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), said that the computer-generated images of the city, which is still buried under the ground, show a very detailed layout of ancient Avaris. Several architectural features including houses, temples, streets, cemeteries and palaces can be seen. The team has also been able to make out the arrangement of neighborhoods and living quarters.

Reference: Zahi Hawass’s blog

news.xinhuanet.com

Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin .

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Ancient Egypt, Cultural Tourism, Discoveries in Egypt, Latest Discoveries in Egypt, Sightseeing Tours | Tags: , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Islamic Cairo, Egypt: Mosque of Al-Refa’i, Mosque of Sultan Hassan & Mosque of Al-Hakim.

Mosque of Al-Refa’i

Al Rifai Mosque

Al Rifai Mosque

The Al Refa’I mosque (named in English the ROYAL MOSQUE)is located in cairo, Egypt, in Midan al-Qal’a adjacent to the Cairo citadel
The original site was occupied with small fatimide Mosque known as (Al- Zakhera) and a small Mosque of Hussin Al Refa’i.

This Mosque was founded by Lady Khushiar Hanim mother of Caliph Ismail. She founded the Mosque in 1869 AD, but the construction was stopped in 1880 AD. Later on, in 1905 the construction resumed and the Mosque was finished in 1911. The importance of this Mosque came from the burials of the members of the Mohamed Ali family within the Mosque.
The Mosque is almost rectangular in shape and it consists of two sections the 1st is the pray house and the 2nd is the royal tombs and mausoleums.

Mosque of Sultan Hassan

Al Sultan Hassan Mosque

Al Sultan Hassan Mosque

This Mosque was founded by Sultan Hassan son of An- Nasser Mohamed Ibn Kalowon. This Mamluk ruler ruled Egypt during two periods: from 748 to 752, then he was exiled to Syria, then he regained his throne and ruled from 755 to 762 and he was killed at Syria. He founded this Mosque during the 2nd period at 757 A.H. and he spent 3 years in the construction of this Mosque.

This Mosque is very important because it is considered as the Pyramid of Islamic architecture in Egypt and it has the biggest Qibla Iwan, the biggest Dekket El Mubalegh, and Korsi El Koran in the Islamic world, it has the largest Façade of the Islamic monuments in Egypt. The Dome of the Mausoleum has a unique design as it is located to the back of the qibla wall instead of being to the south.
Mosque of Al-Hakim

Al-Hakim Mosque

Al-Hakim Mosque

Located on the right side of bab el futuh in Islamic Cairo Is the magnificent al-hakim mosque named after the third fatimid caliph who became one of the most notorious despots ever to rule Egypt. The mosque was actually an enclosure of Gawhar Al-Siqilli, but was incorporated into the extended fortifications built by Badr al-Gamali.
The structure of the building followed the precedent of the mosque of ahmed ibn tulun being constructed on the principles of arcades with piers and pointed arches and also contained an intermediate space separating the mosque from the city around it. The mosque is constructed of brick with stone facades and minarets. Its irregular rectangular plan is composed of a rectangular courtyard, with a prayer hall whose arcades are carried on piers. The aisle leading to the mihrab is emphasized both in width and height. The termination of this aisle at the mihrab is marked by a dome carried on squinches, and domes mark the outer corners of the prayer hall as well.

Reference:

http://www.memphistours.com/about-egypt/Mosque-of-Al-Hakim.php

http://www.memphistours.com/about-egypt/Mosque–Madrasa-of-Sultan-Hassan.php

http://www.memphistours.com/about-egypt/Mosque-of-Al-Refa’i.php

Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Ancient Egypt, Cultural Tourism, Discoveries in Egypt | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Djedi Team Robot(robotic tunnel explorer) at the Great Pyramid of Khufu.

The Djedi Team, from left to right - Stephen Rhodes, Robert Richardson, Zahi Hawass, Shaun Whitehead, Adrian Hildred, David Keeling, Ron Grieve, Jeff Vale, TC Ng (Photo: Meghan Strong)

The Djedi Team, from left to right – Stephen Rhodes, Robert Richardson, Zahi Hawass, Shaun Whitehead, Adrian Hildred, David Keeling, Ron Grieve, Jeff Vale, TC Ng (Photo: Meghan Strong)

Recently I went to visit the Great Pyramid of Khufuand observe the work of the Djedi team. Djedi is a joint international-Egyptian mission, which I named after Djedi, the magician who Khufu consulted when planning the layout of his pyramid. The purpose of this project is to send a robotic tunnel explorer into the two “air shafts” that lead from the Queen’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid of Khufu to gather evidence to determine the purpose of the shafts.

I selected the Djedi team during a competition that I coordinated to pick the best possible robot to explore the shafts in the Great Pyramid. I decided on a team sponsored by Leeds University and supported by Dassault Systemes in France. The team members include:

Dr Ng Tze Chuen (Hong Kong).  Independent researcher
·       Team founder, working on the concept since 1992
·       Developed concept proposal of Djedi robot based on previous experience with space robotics.

Mr Shaun Whitehead (UK),  Independent researcher, Scoutek
·       Founder of the UK involvement in the Djedi project
·       Systems engineer and mission manager for the project.

Dr Robert Richardson (UK),  Lecturer in engineering systems and design, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK
·       Joined Djedi project in 2006
·       Manager of Leeds/Manchester University team.

Mr Ron Grieve (Canada).  Tekron Services, Canada
·       World expert in ultrasonic impact-echo measurements.
·       Responsible for assessing thickness and condition of the blocking stones.

Other key team members include Andrew Pickering, Stephen Rhodes and Adrian Hildred. This international team is experienced in the development and deployment of systems to meet real world challenges, including systems for space, search and rescue and medical devices, as well as inspection of stone structures.

With the help of the Djedi team, we hope to uncover the meaning of these airshafts by drilling through the doors that are blocking them. The team has made to previous examinations of the airshafts in July and December of 2009. The team is hoping to gather as much evidence as possible to try to piece together the purpose of the airshafts, while at the same time ensuring that the Great Pyramid is not damaged in any way.

Shaun Whitehead provided the following details on the

 

The Djedi robot (Photo: Sandro Vannini)

The Djedi robot (Photo: Sandro Vannini)

instruments that the robot is equipped with:

Micro “snake camera” that can fit through small spaces and see round corners like an endoscope.

A miniaturised ultrasonic device that can tap on walls and listen to the response to help determine the thickness and condition of the stone.

A miniature ‘beetle’ robot that can fit through a hole 20mm diameter for further exploration in confined spaces.

Precision compass and inclinometer to measure the orientation of the shafts.

A coring drill that can penetrate the second blocking stone (if necessary and feasible) while removing the minimum amount of material necessary.

I look forward to sharing more results about the Djedi Project in the future. I believe this project will finally uncover the answers behind the airshafts in the Great Pyramid.

Source: drhawass.com

Posted by : Yasmine Aladdin.

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Ancient Egypt, Cultural Tourism, Discoveries in Egypt, Latest Discoveries in Egypt | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Last chance to see King Tut, in New York, in the Discovery Times Square Exposition.

King Tut

King Tut

Families planning a vacation often want to have a unique experience, as well as an educational one. With the tomb of King Tut’s limited engagement in Times Square coming to a close, those planning a family vacation should act quickly to book a trip that offers both.
The King Tut exhibit, currently showing in the Discovery Times Square Exposition, is the first appearance of the boy king in New York in 30 years. However, the exhibit is only on loan from Egypt until January 2, 2011, so those who want to get a glimpse of the legendary pharaoh should do so quickly.

The highlight of the exhibit is undoubtedly Tut’s iconic golden canopic coffinette, but its not the only artifact on display. Fifty artifacts from Tut’s own tomb are present, along with 80 from other royal tombs. These range from a golden headdress to the crown Tut was wearing when he was discovered.

Not only is the exhibition a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to see these treasures, but it’s also a chance for an educational experience. Kids will love learning about the ancient Egyptians, and parents might be interested in the latest DNA research on Tut’s body.

New York is the last stop on an eight-city, six-year tour, with tour organizers saying that the artifacts will return to Egypt forever at its conclusion. Travelers should take advantage of this limited run and book their North American family vacation today.

Reference: travimp.com

Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Ancient Egypt, Discoveries in Egypt | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Ostrich Feathers in Ancient Egypt

An Ostrich

An Ostrich

The Ostrich was greatly valued in Ancient Egypt for its feathers and eggs.

The people of Ancient Egypt traded in ostrich products with Nubia, Ethiopia and Punt. Wall reliefs show conquering pharaohs receiving ostriches and their products from conquered nations. The Ancient Egyptians did not view the ostrich as one of their sacred animals but greatly valued it for its feathers and eggs.

Ostrich Feathers in Ancient Egypt

The ostrich feather was associated with the Goddess Ma’at. It was the symbol used to depict her and images of her show her wearing an ostrich feather in her hair. Ma’at was the daughter of the sun god and was the goddess of truth and justice. When a man died and wished to enter the afterlife, Ma’at weighed their heart against the weight of an ostrich feather. Only if a man’s heart weighed less than the feather was he allowed to enter the afterlife.

Ostrich Feathers as a Fashion Accessory in Ancient Egypt

Ostrich feathers were worn by men and in early times were worn in the hair of Egyptian soldiers. In later times only men of royal blood were allowed to wear the ostrich feather. Princesses of Ancient Egypt had fans made out of the ostrich feathers, with bases made of gold and when the Pharaoh went out among the people, royal servants kept him cool with ostrich feather fans on long poles.

The Ostrich Feather in Religious Ceremony in Ancient Egypt

When a man died, two ostrich feathers were placed with the body. The ostrich plumes were provided as a sort of vehicle for the soul. The feathers were meant to float upon a gust of wind to the afterlife, with the soul as a passenger. Ostrich egg shells have also been found amongst grave goods.

Riding Ostriches in Ancient Egypt

In some sources is suggests that the Ancient Egyptians may have used ostriches to ride upon. Ostriches could easily carry a small child and even a fully grown man if only short periods.

Ostrich Eggs in Ancient Egypt

The Ancient Egyptians painted ostrich eggs and decorated them with a variety of different designs. Imitation ostrich eggs were also made out of clay and marble and painted with various patterns. During the New Kingdom it is a possibility that ostriches were domesticated and the eggs used as a food source. The eggs were also an ingredient for some medical recipes. Ostrich eggs were also sometimes made into jewellery. They could be made into beads, perforated discs and pendants to be put on a chain and worn around the neck. Some containers and vessels have also been found made out of the egg shell.

References

Special Paper: The Ostrich in Egypt: Past and Present,Nicolas Manlius, Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 28, No. 8 (Aug., 2001), pp. 945-953 Published by: Blackwell Publishing

Nicholson, P.T, Shaw.,I,2000, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge University Press

egyptian-history.suite101.com

Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: 1, Ancient Egypt | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Egypt: Miles Of Nile And Worlds Of Wonder !


 

 

Sphinx and the Pyramids

Sphinx and the Pyramids

Egypt is consistently the top destination for world travel each and every year – and not surprisingly so. The country uniquely bridges the African and Asian continents across the Suez Canal by possession of the Sinai Peninsula. This key positioning has guaranteed Egypt a major role in the strategic and historic relationships between the east, west, north and south of Africa, Europe, Asia and the more direct Middle East beginning more than 5000 years ago when the first Kingdom of Egypt was unified. In addition to a most remarkable past, Egypt offers the eager traveler thriving international cities, lavish Red Sea resorts, fabled oases and literally hundreds of miles of ancient pharaoh monuments along the Nile River Valley.

Water, Torch and Tomb

When Muslim Arabs introduced Egyptians to Islam in the 7th century, much of the already weary monuments of the native dynasties became even less central to national heritage. Luckily, a renewed interest in archeological preservation over the past few centuries has kept these ancient wonders intact for the world to continue to enjoy. The ideal place to begin is Cairo, where the Egyptian Museum boasts hundreds of thousands of artifacts and will give you an opportunity to catch up your knowledge of ancient Egyptian history from the 4th grade. Nearby are the breathtaking Giza Pyramids and the Sphinx, cut from a single slab of stone over 4,000 years ago, which can be viewed more peacefully beyond the crowds from horseback. South of Cairo, Upper Egyptoffers a string of exciting temple towns between legendary Luxor and Aswan, including the Valley of the Kings. Although King Tutankhamen’s Tomb rests here, it is not nearly as impressive as the surrounding royal tombs, particularly the general-kings of the Ramesses Dynasties.

A Little Ocean with your Sand?

Aside from the Nile River Valley, Egypt is largely made up of the Saharan desert to the south and west; however, Egypt also happens to be a first class resort destination with nearly all (500 miles) of its eastern edge bordered by the tranquil azure waters of the Red Sea Coast. Visit the lively town of Harghada where traditional Egyptian life intermingles with international resort luxury. This area is extremely popular for scuba diving and snorkeling with its numerous underwater shipwrecks, sea caves and exotic fish. There are a multitude of islands to which you can escape by ferry or paddle boat and many small fishing towns for a little peace, quiet and local flavor added to your vacation.

The Mediterranean coastline also provides a nice break from the rolling sand dunes. Alexandriais Egypt’s busting port city with more Greek and French flare than the rest of the country. The city’s history is extremely eclectic, making a stroll through the streets feel like a wander across cultures and time periods. Alex the Great staged his resistance against the Romans from Alexandria, bringing a large population of Greeks with him, and for a short period Napoleon had managed to gain control of the ancient city.

Remember that Egypt is both ancient and modern. Travel to Egypt is not only about the archeological wonders and bone-chilling tales but also about the experience of a nation that is geopolitically and economically central to its larger surrounding region, a nation that is just as crucial to the identity of North Africa as it is to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Egyptis justifiably as monumental today as the Giza Pyramids that symbolize the nation’s heritage.

Reference: vis-ta-nature.com

Posted by: Yasmine Aladdin.

Memphis Tours Egypt since 1955.

Categories: Adventure Tours, Budget Tours, Cultural Tourism, Family Tours, Honeymooners, Safari Travel, Sightseeing Tours | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

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